Essential Items To Have Inside Your Chicken Coop [Homestead 101]

The outside of a chicken coop.

Well-equipped and comfortable housing is essential to ensure the health and happiness of your chicken flock. What items are essential components to include in the chicken coop to keep the flock happy and healthy?

Essential items to include in the chicken coop must include items for your chickens’ safety, health, comfort, and well-being. These items include providing shelter from the weather and predators, nesting requirements, feeding and watering items, and items for hygiene in the coop.

Chickens are not difficult livestock to keep on the homestead or in your backyard, but they need certain requirements for their living quarters to maintain health and well-being. We will discuss the essential components that you should consider incorporating into your chicken coop design to cater to the needs of your flock.

Essential Chicken Coop Items

A chicken coop is more than a simple shelter; it’s a haven where your chickens will eat, sleep, lay eggs, and seek safety from predators.

Therefore, it’s not just about having a structure but about the design meeting the chicken’s needs and the items you put inside it. The right items can significantly affect your chickens’ quality of life and productivity.

We have broken the essential items for a chicken coop into several categories, including space considerations, structural aspects, climate, hygiene, feeding, watering, and additional features.

Space In The Chicken Coop

One of the first considerations, and possibly most significant, when setting up a chicken coop is space. Chickens need ample room to move, forage, and express their natural behaviors.

The space you provide for the birds directly impacts their health, happiness, and productivity.

Indoor And Outdoor Space

Chickens require both indoor and outdoor space. The indoor space, or the coop itself, is where your chickens will sleep, lay eggs, and take refuge from bad weather or predators.

Each chicken should have at least 2-3 square feet of space inside the coop. However, more space is always better to prevent overcrowding and the potential for disease spread.

The outdoor space, often called the run, is the space where your chickens will spend most of their day. They’ll forage, take dust baths, and enjoy the sunshine here.

A general rule-of-thumb is to provide at least 8-10 sq feet of outdoor space per chicken. This area should be securely fenced to protect your flock from predators.

The Right Size Coop

The size of your chicken coop will be determined by the size of the flock plan to keep. Remember, it’s better to err on the side of too much space for your birds rather than too little. Overcrowding can lead to stress, aggressive behavior, and health issues among your flock.

When planning your coop, consider your current flock size and any potential future additions. This foresight will save you from making difficult or complex adjustments later on.

A Chicken Run For The Coop

A chicken run is an enclosed, protected outdoor area where your chickens can safely exercise, forage, and enjoy fresh air and sunshine. It’s an essential feature for a chicken coop, especially if your chickens don’t have free range in your yard.

The run should be securely fenced to protect your chickens from predators and provide plenty of space for all your chickens to move freely.

Essential Structural Items For The Chicken Coop

Once you’ve determined the size and space requirements for your chicken coop, the next step is to focus on the essential structures that should be present inside. These structures are critical to the chickens’ daily activities and overall well-being.

The Chicken Coop Enclosure

The enclosure is the physical structure of the coop that provides shelter and protection for your chickens. It should be sturdy, weather-resistant, and predator-proof.

The walls can be made from various materials, including wood, metal, or even repurposed materials. Regardless of the material, ensure no gaps or holes that could allow predators to enter. The roof should be waterproof to keep the interior dry during rainy weather.

Roosting Bars In The Chicken Coop

Roosting bars are essentially the chickens’ beds. Chickens naturally seek high places to sleep as a safety measure against predators.

Providing roosting bars gives them a designated place to perch and sleep at night. Each chicken should have about 8-10 inches of roosting space, and the bars should be positioned higher than the nesting boxes to discourage chickens from sleeping in the boxes.

Roosting bars can be purchased, or you can custom design and build roosts to fit your chicken coop. If you take this DIY project on, there are several different roost designs you can choose from, but you must ensure you stick to the specifications that make them suitable for chickens.

If the roosting bars are uncomfortable, the chickens will not use them and may seek other roosting spots, compromising their safety.

Nesting Boxes Are Essential In A Chicken Coop

Nesting boxes are where your hens will lay their eggs. A general chicken-keeping guideline is to provide at least one nesting box for every 3-4 hens.

The nesting boxes should be comfortable, private, and somewhat dark, as hens prefer quiet and secluded places to lay their eggs. Line the boxes with soft bedding, such as straw or wood shavings, to keep the eggs from breaking.

A Raised Floor For The Chicken Coop

A raised floor can be a beneficial feature in a chicken coop. It helps to deter predators and pests, and it can also aid in keeping the coop dry and clean.

A raised floor can also provide options to include design features in the coop that make it simpler, easier, and more convenient for you to maintain and clean the coop’s interior.

If you choose to have a raised floor, ensure that it’s not too high for the chickens to comfortably access the coop. A ramp can be added for easier access.

Climate Control

Climate control is a crucial aspect of a well-designed chicken coop. Chickens are hardy animals but still need a comfortable and stable environment to thrive.

This means protecting them from extreme temperatures, ensuring good air quality, and providing adequate ventilation.

Chicken Coop Ventilation

Good ventilation is an essential aspect in a chicken coop to maintain fresh air and prevent ammonia buildup from chicken waste.

Without proper ventilation, the air inside the coop can become stale and harmful, leading to respiratory issues among your flock.

Install vents or windows near the top of the coop to allow warm, stale air to escape and fresh air to circulate. However, make sure the vents are designed to prevent drafts directly onto the roosting chickens, as this can cause them to become chilled.

Proper Insulation Is Essential In A Chicken Coop

Insulation is key in maintaining a comfortable temperature inside the coop, especially in areas with cold winters. It helps to keep the coop warm in winter and cool in summer.

Insulation can be added to the walls, roof, and floor of the coop. It is important to cover any insulation material with a solid barrier like plywood to prevent the chickens from pecking at it and possibly ingesting the insulation, which could harm them.

Chicken Coop Temperature Control

While chickens can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, extreme heat or cold can be detrimental to the health of your flock.

In hot weather, provide shade and plenty of fresh water. You can also install fans to increase air circulation.

In cold weather, while it’s unnecessary to heat the coop in most cases, it may be required in areas with extremely cold winters. If you use a heater, ensure it’s safe and does not pose a fire risk.

Chicken Coop Hygiene And Maintenance Items

Maintaining a clean and hygienic environment is paramount to the health, well-being, and productiveness of your chickens.

A well-maintained coop keeps your chickens happy and helps prevent the spread of disease and pests in the flock.

Flooring And Bedding In The Coop

The choice of flooring and bedding in your chicken coop can significantly impact cleanliness and hygiene. The coop floor should be easy to clean and resistant to rot and pests.

Materials like concrete, wood, or linoleum are commonly used. On top of the floor, bedding material helps absorb droppings and reduce odors.

Straw, wood shavings, or sand are popular choices for bedding. Whichever bedding you choose should be changed regularly to keep the coop clean and dry.

Chicken Coop Litter Trays

Litter trays can be useful for your chicken coop, especially under roosting bars. Chickens tend to produce most of their droppings overnight while they roost, so placing litter trays beneath the roosting bars can make morning clean-up much easier.

These trays should be emptied and cleaned regularly to maintain a hygienic environment. Litter trays are not a requirement, but it makes maintaining a clean coop quick and easy.

Dropping Boards For Your Chicken Coop

Dropping boards are similar to litter trays but are typically used in larger coops. They are flat boards placed under the roosting bars to catch droppings.

Dropping boards need to be scraped clean regularly, but they can be a benefit by significantly reducing the amount of bedding you need to replace, making them a more sustainable option for larger flocks.

Remember, a clean coop is a healthy coop. Regular maintenance not only ensures the coop’s longevity but also contributes to your flock’s overall health and productivity.

Feeding And Watering Chicken Coop Items

Proper feeding and watering are crucial to the health and productivity of your chickens. Chickens need a balanced diet and constant access to clean water to thrive.

Many options offer methods that make keeping your flock fed and watered less of a chore. Keeping your chicken’s food and water clean and fresh is important to prevent the spread of disease and parasites.

Food And Water In The Coop

Chickens need a balanced diet to remain healthy and productive. Layer pellets are typically used as they provide all the necessary nutrients for laying hens.

In addition to pellets, chickens enjoy a variety of kitchen scraps and garden waste. However, avoid giving them anything toxic, like onions, chocolate, or avocado.

Water is just as important as food. Chickens must always have access to clean, fresh water. They drink a surprising amount daily, especially in hot weather, so check their water supply regularly.

Feeders and waterers must be placed inside the coop as well as in the outside run to give the birds access to food and water at any time of the day.

It is important to make sure food and water are present inside the coop in times of bad weather to allow the chickens to feed when they are sheltering in the coop.

Chicken Coop Feeders And Waterers

Feeders and waterers come in various designs, but the key is to choose models that are easy to clean and refill. They should also be designed to prevent chickens from walking in them or knocking them over.

Feeders can be placed at ground level, but placing them in a slightly raised position is best to prevent chickens from scratching bedding or dirt into their food. Waterers should also be elevated to keep the water clean.

There are stands made specifically to raise chicken feeders and waterers off the ground, but it is fairly easy to improvise using items such as pallets, bricks, or cinder blocks you may already have around the homestead.

Additional Features Essential In A Chicken Coop

Beyond the basic necessities, several additional features can significantly enhance your chicken coop’s comfort, functionality, and overall appeal. These features can contribute to the well-being of your chickens and make your coop more efficient and enjoyable to manage.

Lighting For The Chicken Coop

Lighting plays a crucial role in a chicken coop. Chickens need light to regulate their laying cycle, with 14-16 hours of light per day often recommended for optimal egg production.

Natural daylight is best, but supplemental lighting may be necessary in the shorter days of winter. If you use artificial lighting, ensure it’s installed safely and doesn’t cause excessive heat.

Chicken Coop Toys

Chickens are intelligent and curious animals that benefit from mental stimulation. Toys can provide entertainment and help prevent boredom, which can lead to unwanted behaviors like feather pecking.

Providing in-coop entertainment for your chickens is especially important if they must stay in the coop for longer periods due to inclement weather conditions.

From simple hanging treats to more complex puzzle toys, many options are available to keep your chickens entertained.


Creating a well-equipped chicken coop is a rewarding endeavor that significantly contributes to your flock’s health, happiness, and productivity. From ensuring adequate space and essential structures to maintaining a comfortable climate, cleanliness, and proper feeding and watering, each aspect plays a crucial role in your chickens’ well-being.

Every chicken coop is unique, reflecting the flock’s needs and the chicken keeper’s preferences. What’s most important is creating a space where your chickens feel safe, comfortable, and at home.



Alice is a writer who grew up on a beautiful homestead in rural Old England. She now lives in New England with her fur babies and is on a mission to return to the land for a simpler, greener, and all-round kinder existence.

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